BREAKING NEWS

03 February 2009

MNEMONICS FOR NURSES PART 07

HYPERNATREMIA
FRIED SALT
F - Fever (low), flushed skin 
R - Restless (irritable) 
I - Increased fluid retention & increased BP 
E - Edema (peripheral and pitting) 
D - Decreased urinary output, dry mouth 

SALT 
S - Skin flushed 
A - Agitation 
L - Low-grade fever 
T - Thirst

HYPERKALEMIA - Signs & Symptoms 
MURDER
M - Muscle weakness 
U - Urine, oliguria, anuria 
- Respiratory distress 
D - Decreased cardiac contractility 
E - ECG changes 
R - Reflexes, hyperreflexia, or areflexia (flaccid)

HYPERKALEMIA - Causes
MACHINE
M - Medications - ACE inhibitors, NSAIDS 
A - Acidosis - Metabolic and respiratory 
C - Cellular destruction - Burns, traumatic injury 
H - Hypoaldosteronism/ hemolysis 
I - Intake - Excessive 
N - Nephrons, renal failure 
E - Excretion - Impaired

HYPOCALCEMIA 
CATS
C - Convulsions 
- Arrhythmias 
T - Tetany 
S - Spasms and stridor

BLEEDING - S/Sx
BEEP
B - Bleeding gums 
E - Ecchymoses (bruises) 
E - Epistaxis (nosebleed) 
P - Petechiae (tiny purplish spots)

RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION - inducing drugs
STOP breathing 
S - Sedatives and hypnotics 
T - Trimethoprim 
O - Opiates 
P - Polymyxins

PNEUMOTHORAX - S/Sx
P-THORAX
P - Pleuretic pain 
T - Trachea deviation 
H - Hyperresonance 
O - Onset sudden 
R - Reduced breath sounds (& dypsnea) 
A - Absent fremitus 
X - X-ray shows collapse

PNEUMONIA -  risk factors 
INSPIRATION 
I - Immunosuppression 
N - Neoplasia 
S - Secretion retention 
P - Pulmonary oedema 
I - Impaired alveolar macrophages 
R - RTI (prior) 
A - Antibiotics & cytotoxics 
T - Tracheal instrumentation 
I - IV dug abuse 
O - Other (general debility, immobility) 
N - Neurologic impairment of cough reflex, (eg NMJ disorders)

CROUP - S/Sx
SSS
S - Stridor 
S - Subglottic swelling 
S - Seal-bark cough

SHORTNESS OF BREATH - Causes
AAAA PPPP 
A - Airway obstruction 
A - Angina 
A - Anxiety 
A - Asthma 
P - Pneumonia 
P - Pneumothorax 
P - Pulmonary Edema 
P - Pulmonary Embolus

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