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MNEMONICS

BODY SYSTEMS

MEDICAL SURGICAL

18 August 2015

Mnemonics for Nursing Exam Review


I have compiled several Mnemonics to help nurses from all over the world with their nursing exams.
Feel free to share these collection and please share us on Facebook and on other social media.

DRUGS THAT STAINS THE TEETH (use straw)
LINT:
LUGOL'S SOLUTION
IRON
NITROFURANTOIN
TETRACYCLINE

CRANIAL NERVES that control/innervates  the muscles of the eye
LR6 - LATERAL RECTUS : CN6
SO4 - SUPERIOR OBLIQUE : CN4
ALL3 - ALL THE REST : CN3

RADIATION TX VIA:
MENSA:
MUSTARD
ESTROGEN
NITROGEN
STEROIDS
ANTIBIOTICS

OSMOLALITY
D = D
DILUTE = DECREASE OSMOLALITY

SHOCK
HYPO-TACHY-TACHY:
HYPOTENSION
TACHYPNEA
TACHYCARDIA

INCREASE ICP (CUSHINGS TRIAD)
HYPER-BRADY-BRADY:
HYPERTENSION (WIDE PULSE PRESSURE)
BRADYCARDIA
BRADYPNEA

HYPOGLYCEMIA
TIRED:
TREMORS, TACHYCARDIA
IRRITABILITY
RESTLESSNESS
EXTREME
DIAPHORESIS

EARLY SIGNS OF HYPOXIA
RAT:
RESTLESSNESS
AGITATION
TACHYCARDIA

LATE SIGNS OF HYPOXIA
BED-C:
BRADYCARDIA
EXTREME RESTLESSNESS
DYSPNEA
CYANOSIS

CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE
MADD DOG:
MORPHINE
AMINOPHYLLINE
DOPAMINE
DIGOXIN

DIURETICS
O2
GASSES – MONITOR (ABG)

MG SO4 TOXICITY
BURP:
BP DECREASE
URINE OUTPUT DECREASE
RESPIRATORY RATE DECREASE
PATELLAR REFLEX ABSENT

SICKLE CELL DISEASE
HOPIA:
HYDRATION
OXYGENATION
PAIN
INFECTION
AVOID HIGH PLACES

PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION, SEVERE PREECLAMPSIA
HELP:
HEMOLYSIS
ELEVATED LIVER ENZYMES
LOW
PLATELETS

GI SYMPTOMS AND TOXICITY TO DIGOXIN
VANDA:
VOMITTING
ANOREXIA
NAUSEA
DIARRHEA
ABDOMINAL PAIN

FRACTURE Management
PRICE:
PRESSURE
REST
ICE
COMPRESSION
ELEVATION

TETRALOGY OF FALLOT
DROP:
DISPLACED AORTA
RIGHT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY
OPENING INTO THE SEPTUM (VSD)
PULMONARY STENOSIS

HYPOKALEMIA Signs and Symptoms
SUCTION:
SKELETAL MUSCLE WEAKNESS
U-WAVE ON ECG
CONSTIPATION
TOXICITY TO DIGOXIN
IRREGULAR WEAK PULSE
OTOSTASIS
NUMBNESS PARESTHESIA

NEUROVASCULAR CHECK
"5P’S"
PAIN
PULSELESSNESS
PARESTHESIA
PARALYSIS
PALLOR

VIRCHOW’S TRIAD IN DVT
VDH:
VENUS STASIS
DAMAGE TO VESSELS
HYPERCOAGUABILITY

ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURISM
"4A’s"
ASSYMPTOMATIC
ABDOMINAL MASS
ABDOMINAL PULSE
ACHES LOW BACK

ANTI TB DRUGS AND SIDE EFFECTS
RIPES:
RIFAMPICIN – RED-ORANGE URINE
ISONIAZID – PERIPHERAL NEURITIS
PYRAZINAMIDE – INCREASE URIC ACID
ETHAMBUTOL – EYE PROBLEMS
STREPTOMYCIN – OTOTOXIC

Basic MI management
BOOMAR:
Bed rest
Oxygen
Opiate
Monitoring
Anticoagulation
Reduce clot size

To Remember Immunoglobulins
GAMED:
IgG
IgA
IgM
IgE
IgD

Location of the heart valve from right to left
"A Permanently Temperamental Man"
Aortic
Pulmonary
Tricuspid
Mitral


"Cut C4, breathe no more"
The 3rd, 4th and 5th cervical spinal nerves innervate the diaphragm.

Types of Joint movements
FEEDPIPE CARDSHARP:
Flexion
Extension
Eversion
Dorsiflexion
Pronation
Inversion
Plantarflexion
Elevation
Circumduction
Abduction
Rotation
Depression
Supination
Hyperextension
Adduction
Retraction
Protraction

Cranial Nerves
"Oh Ohh Ohhh To Try And Fit A Gold Velvet So Heavenly"
Olfactory CN I
Optic CN II
Occulomotor CN III
Trochlear CN IV
Trigeminal CN V
Abducens CN VI
Facial CN VII
Auditory CN VIII
Glasopharyngeal CN IX
Vagus CN X
Spinal/Accessory CN XI
Hypoglossal CN XII

"Point and Shoot!"
For remembering that Parasympathetics are involved with erection and Sympathetics with ejaculation.

Layers of the scalp
SCALP:
Skin
Connective tissue
Aponeurosis
Loose areolar tissue
Pericranium

Carpal bones of the hand (lateral to medial)
"She Looks Too Proud, Try To Chase Her"
Proximal row:
Scaphoid
Lunate
Triquetrum
Pisiform

Distal row:
Trapezium
Trapezoid
Capitate
Hamate

Viruses causing diarrhea
ACNE CAR:
Adeno virus
Corana virus
Norwak virus
Entero virus
Calci virus
Astro virus
Rota virus

The Krebs cycle
"Can I Actually See Some Filipina Mothers"
Citrate
Isocitrate
alpha Ketoglutarate
Succinyl CoA
Succinate
Fumarate
Malate
Oxaloacetate

Stages of mitosis/meiosis including interphase as a phase
"In Philippines, Men Are Talented"
Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase

Order of prevalence of White Blood Cells, most prevalent to least
"Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas"
Neutrophils
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
Eosinophils
Basophils

10 essential amino acids
PVT. TIM HALL:
Phenylalanine
Valine
Tryptophan
Threonine
Isoleucine
Metheonine
Histidine(semi-essential)
Arginine(semi-essential)
Leucine
Lysine

Uses of Chloroquine (other than malaria)
RED LIP:
Rheumatoid arthritis
Extra intestinal amoebiasis
Discoid lupus erythematosus
Lepra reaction
Infectious mononucleosis
Photogenic reactions

Bronchodilators
TO A SIS:
Terbutaline
Orciprenaline
Adrenaline
Salbutamol
Isoprenaline
Salmeterol

Signs of Cor Pulmonale
"Please Read His Text"
Peripheral edema
Raised JVP
Hepatomegaly
Tricuspid incompetence

Portal hypertension features
ABCDE:
Ascites
Bleeding (hematemesis, piles)
Caput medusae
Diminished liver
Enlarged spleen

Key questions needed in an emergency history taking situation
AMPLE:
Allergies
Medication
Past medical history
Last meal
Events and environment related to injury

Malignancies that metastisize to bone
"Laging Panalo Kung Taga Bulacan"
Lung
Prostat
Kidney
Thyroid
Breast

Scarlet Fever
"6S's"
Streptococci causal organism
Sorethroat
Swollen tonsils
Strawberry tongue
Sandpaper rash
miliarySudamina vesicles over hands, feet, abdomen


Signs of anti-cholinergic crisis
SLUD:
Salivation
Lacrimation
Urination
Defecation

Causes of huge spleen
"3M's"
Myelofibrosis
Malaria
Myelogenous leukemia

Cardinal Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease
TRAP:
Tremor
Rigidity
Akinesia and bradykinesia
Postural Instability

Days of appearance of rashes
Varicella (chickenpox) - "Very Sick Patients Must Take Double Exercise"
1st dayScarlet fever
2nd dayPox(smallpox)
3rd dayMumps
4th dayTyphus
5th dayDengue
6th dayEnteric fever(typhoid)

SIGNS OF CANCER
CAUTION US:
Change in bowel /bladder habits
A sore that doesn’t heal
Unusual bleeding/ Discharge
Thickening of lump – breast or elsewhere
Indigestion/ Dysphagia
Obvious change in wart/ mole
Nagging cough/ hoarseness

Unexplained anemia
Sudden weight loss

FOCUS OF PATIENT CARE IN CLIENTS WITH CANCER
CANCER:
Chemotherapy
Assess body image disturbance (related to alopecia)
Nutritional needs when N/V present
Comfort from pain
Effective response to Tx (Evaluate)
Rest (for patient and family)

Acid-base
"ROME" (Respiratory Opposite, Metabolic Equal)
Acidosis
» Respiratory (opposite): pH Pco2
» Metabolic(equal): pH HCO3

Alkalosis
» Respiratory (opposite): pH Pco2
» Metabolic(equal): pH HCO3

Alcohol withdrawal: clinical features
HITS:
Hallucinations (visual, tactile)
Increased vital signs and insomnia
Tremens delirium tremens (potentially lethal)
Shakes/ Sweats/ Seizures/ Stomach pains (nausea, vomiting)

Angina: precipitating factors
"4E's"
Eating
Emotion
Exertion (Exercise)
Extreme Temperatures (Hot or Cold weather)

Anorexia nervosa: clinical features
ANOREXIC:
Adolescent women/ Amenorrhea
NGT alimentation (most severe cases)
Obsession with losing weight/ becoming fat though underweight
Refusal to eat (5% die)
Electrolyte abnormalities (e.g., K+, cardiac arrhythmia)
X - ercise
Intelligence often above average/ Induced vomiting
Cathartic use (and diuretic abuse)

Appendicitis: assessment
PAINS:
Pain (RLQ)
Anorexia
Increased temperature, WBC (15,000–20,000)
Nausea
Signs (McBurney's, Psoas)

Neurovascular Occlusion: symptoms
"6 P's"
Pain
Pale
Pulseless
Paresthesia
Poikilothermic
Paralysis

Blood glucose (rhyme)
Symptom Implication
Cold and clammy . . . give hard candy
Hot and dry . . . glucose is high

Blood vessels in umbilical cord
AVA: (2 arteries and 1 vein)
Artery
Vein
Artery

Cholecystitis: risk factors
"5F's"
Female
Fat
Forty
Fertile
Fair

Cleft lip: nursing care plan (postoperative)
CLEFT LIP:
Crying, minimize
Logan bow
Elbow restraints
Feed with Brecht feeder
Teach feeding techniques; two months of age (average age at repair)
Liquid (sterile water), rinse after feeding
Impaired feeding (no sucking)
Position—never on abdomen

Cognitive disorders: assessment of difficulties
JOCAM:
Judgment
Orientation
Confabulation
Affect
Memory

Coma: Causes
A-E-I-O-U TIPS:
Alcohol, acidosis (hyperglycemic coma)
Epilepsy (also electrolyte abnormality, endocrine problem)
Insulin (hypoglycemic shock)
Overdose (or poisoning)
Uremia and other renal problems

Trauma; temperature abnormalities (hypothermia, heat stroke)
Infection (e.g., meningitis)
Psychogenic ("hysterical coma")
Stroke or space-occupying lesions in the cranium

Cushing's Syndrome: Signs and Symptoms 
"3S's"
Sugar (hyperglycemia)
Salt (hypernatremia)
Sex (excess androgens)

Diabetes: Signs and Symptoms 
"3P's"
Polydipsia (very thirsty)
Polyphagia (very hungry)
Polyuria (urinary frequency)

Low cholesterol diet
Avoid the "3C's"
Cake
Cookies
Cream (dairy, e.g., milk, ice cream)

Dystocia: etiology
"3P's"
Power
Passageway
Passenger

Dystocia: general aspects (maternal)
"3P's"
Psych
Placenta
Position

Episiotomy assessment
REEDA:
Redness
Edema
Ecchymosis
Discharge
Approximation of skin

Eye medications
Mydriatic = dilated pupils
Miotic = tiny (constricted) pupils

Hypertension: complications
"4 C’s"
CAD (coronary artery disease)
CHF (congestive heart failure)
CRF (chronic renal failure)
CVA (cardiovascular accident; now called brain attack or stroke)

Hypertension: Nursing care plan
I-TIRED:
Intake and output (urine)
Take blood pressure
Ischemia attack, transient (watch for TIAs)
Respiration, pulse
Electrolytes
Daily weight

Hypoglycemia Signs and Symptoms 
DIRE:
Diaphoresis
Increased pulse
Restless
Extra hungry

Infections during pregnancy
TORCH:
Toxoplasmosis
Other (hepatitis B, syphilis, group B beta strep)
Rubella
Cytomegalovirus
Herpes simplex virus

IUD: potential problems with use
PAINS:
Period (menstrual: late, spotting, bleeding)
Abdominal pain, dyspareunia
Infection (abnormal vaginal discharge)
Not feeling well, fever or chills
String missing

Manipulation: nursing plan, promote the
"3C’s"
Cooperation
Compromise
Collaboration

Medication administration
"Six rights"
RIGHT medication
RIGHT dosage
RIGHT route
RIGHT time
RIGHT client
RIGHT technique

Melanoma characteristics
ABCD:
Asymmetry
Border
Color
Diameter

Mental retardation: nursing care plan
"3R's"
Regularity (provide routine and structure)
Reward (positive reinforcement)
Redundancy (repeat)

Myocardial infarction: treatment
MONA:
Monitor/ Morphine
Oxygen
Nitroglycerin
Aspirin

Newborn assessment components
APGAR:
Appearance
Pulse
Grimace
Activity
Respiratory effort

Obstetric (maternity) history
GTPAL:
Gravida
Term
Preterm
Abortions (SAB, TAB)
Living children

Oral contraceptives: signs of potential problems
ACHES:
Abdominal pain (possible liver or gallbladder problem)
Chest pain or shortness of breath (possible pulmonary embolus)
Headache (possible hypertension, brain attack)
Eye problems (possible hypertension or vascular accident)
Severe leg pain (possible thromboembolic process)

Pain History Assessment
PQRST:
What Provokes the pain?
What is the Quality of the pain?
Does the pain Radiate?
What is the Severity of the pain?
What is the Timing of the pain?

OLDER SAAB:
Onset            
Location
Description (what does it feel like)
Exacerbating factors
Radiation
Severity
Associated symptoms
Alleviating factors
Before (ever experience this before)


Pain: management
"ABC’s"
Ask about the pain
Believe when clients say they have pain
Choices—let clients know their choices
Deliver what you can, when you said you would
Empower/Enable clients' control over pain

Postoperative complications: order
"4W's"
Wind (pulmonary)
Wound
Water (urinary tract infection)
Walk (thrombophlebitis)

Preterm infant: anticipated problems
TRIES:
Temperature regulation (poor)
Resistance to infections (poor)
Immature liver
Elimination problems (necrotizing enterocolitis [NEC])
Sensory-perceptual functions (retinopathy of prematurity [ROP])

Psychotropic medications: common antidepressives (tricyclics)
VENT:
Vivactil
Elavil
Norpramin
Tofranil

Schizophrenia: primary symptoms
"4A’s"
Affect
Ambivalence
Associative looseness
Autism

Sprain: nursing care plan
RICE:
Rest
Ice
Compression
Elevation

Stool assessment
ACCT:
Amount
Color
Consistency
Timing

Tracheoesophageal fistula: assessment
"3C’s"
Coughing
Choking
Cyanosis

Traction: nursing care plan
TRACTION:
Trapeze bar overhead to raise and lower upper body
Requires free-hanging weights; body alignment
Analgesia for pain, prn
Circulation (check color and pulse)
Temperature (check extremity)
Infection prevention
Output (monitor)
Nutrition (alteration related to immobility)


Transient ischemic attacks: assessment
"3T’s"
Temporary unilateral visual impairment
Transient paralysis (one-sided)
Tinnitus = vertigo

Trauma care: complications
TRAUMA:
Thromboembolism; Tissue perfusion, altered
Respiration, altered
Anxiety related to pain and prognosis
Urinary elimination, altered
Mobility impaired
Alterations in sensory-perceptual functions and skin integrity (infections)

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (alcohol-associated neurological disorder)
COAT RACK:
Wernicke's encephalopathy (acute phase) clinical features:
Confusion
Ophthalmoplegia
Ataxia
Thiamine is an important aspect of Tx

Korsakoff's psychosis (chronic phase) characteristic findings:
Retrograde amnesia (recall of some old memories)
Anterograde amnesia (ability to form new memories)
Confabulation
Korsakoff's psychosis

CARDIAC VALVES
"TRI before you BI"
Tricuspid valve is located in left heart and Bicuspid valve is located in right heart. Blood flows through the tricuspid before bicuspid.

FEMORAL HERNIA
FEMoral hernias are more common in FEMales.

HEART VALVE
"TRY PULLING MY AORTA":
Tricuspid
Pulmonary
Mitral
Aorta

PLACENTA-CROSSING SUBSTANCES
"Want My Hot Dog":
Wastes
Antibodies
Nutrients
Teratogens
Microorganisms
Hormones/ HIV
Drugs

EMERGENCY MEDICINE
ACTIVATED CHARCOAL: CONTRAINDICATIONS
CHEMICAL CamP:
Cyanide
Hydrocarbons
Ethanol
Metals
Iron
Caustics
Airway unprotected
Lithium

CAMphor
Potassium

IPECAC: CONTRAINDICATIONS
“4 C's”
Comatose
Convulsing
Corrosive
hydroCarbon

ATRIAL FIBRILLATION: CAUSES OF NEW ONSET
THE ATRIAL FIBS:
Thyroid
Hypothermia
Embolism (P.E.)

Alcohol
Trauma (cardiac contusion)
Recent surgery (post CABG)
Ischemia
Atrial enlargement
Lone or idiopathic

Fever, anemia, high-output states
Infarct
Bad valves (mitral stenosis)
Stimulants (cocaine, theo, amphet, caffeine)

ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE DELIVERABLE DRUGS
O NAVEL:
Oxygen
Naloxone
Atropine
Ventolin (albuterol)
Epinephrine
Lidocaine

MALARIA COMPLICATIONS OF FALCIPARUM MALARIA
CHAPLIN:
Cerebral malaria/ Coma
Hypoglycemia
Anaemia
Pulmonary edema
Lactic acidosis
Infections
Necrois of renal tubules (ATN)

MI IMMEDIATE TREATMENT
DOGASH:
Diamorphine
Oxygen
GTN spray
Asprin 300mg
Streptokinase
Heparin

SHOCK: SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
TV SPARC CUBE:
Thirst
Vomiting
Sweating
Pulse weak
Anxious
Respirations shallow/rapid
Cool
Cyanotic
Unconscious
BP low
Eyes blank

SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE (SAH) CAUSES
BATS:
Berry aneurysm
Arteriovenous malformation/ Adult polycystic kidney disease
Trauma (eg being struck with baseball bat)
Stroke

VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION: TREATMENT
"Shock, Shock, Shock, Everybody Shock, Little Shock, Big Shock, Momma Shock, Poppa Shock"
Shock= Defibrillate
Everybody= Epinephine
Little= Lidocaine
Big= Bretylium
Momma= MgSO4
Poppa= Pocainamide

VFIB/VTACH DRUGS USED ACCORDING TO ACLS
"Every Little Boy Must Pray"
Epinephrine
Lidocaine
Bretylium
Magsulfate
Procainamide

DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS MANAGEMENT
KING UFC:
K+ (potassium)
Insulin (5u/hour. Note: sliding scale no longer recommended in the UK)
Nasogastic tube (if patient comatose)
Glucose (once serum levels drop to 12)
Urea (check it)
Fluids (crytalloids)
Creatinine (check it)/ Catheterize

NEUROLOGICAL FOCAL DEFICITS
“10 S's”
Sugar (hypo, hyper)
Stroke
Seizure (Todd's paralysis)
Subdural hematoma
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Space occupying lesion (tumor, avm, aneurysm, abscess)
Spinal cord syndromes
Somatoform (conversion reaction)
Sclerosis (MS)
Some migraines

COMA: Conditions to rule out as a cause of coma
MIDAS:
Meningitis
Intoxication
Diabetes
Air (respiratory failure)
Subdural/ Subarachnoid hemorrhage

MALIGNANT HYPERTHERMIA TREATMENT
"Some Hot Dude Better Give Iced Fluids Fast!" (Hot dude = hypothermia):
Stop triggering agents
Hyperventilate/ Hundred percent oxygen
Dantrolene (2.5mg/kg)
Bicarbonate
Glucose and insulin
IV Fluids and cooling blanket
Fluid output monitoring/ Furosemide/ Fast heart (tachycardia)

RESUSCITATION BASIC STEPS
ABCDE:
Airway
Breathing
Circulation
Drugs
Environment

RLQ PAIN: DIFFERENTIAL
APPENDICITIS:
Appendicitis/ Abscess
PID/ Period
Pancreatitis
Ectopic/ Endometriosis
Neoplasia
Diverticulitis
Intussusception
Crohns Disease/ Cyst (ovarian)
IBD
Torsion (ovary)
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Stones

HYPERNATREMIA
FRIED SALT:
Fever (low), flushed skin 
Restless (irritable) 
Increased fluid retention & increased BP 
Edema (peripheral and pitting) 
Decreased urinary output, dry mouth 

Skin flushed 
Agitation 
Low-grade fever 
Thirst

HYPERKALEMIA - Signs and Symptoms 
MURDER:
Muscle weakness 
Urine, oliguria, anuria 
Respiratory distress 
Decreased cardiac contractility 
ECG changes 
Reflexes, hyperreflexia, or areflexia (flaccid)

HYPERKALEMIA - Causes
MACHINE:
Medications - ACE inhibitors, NSAIDS 
Acidosis - Metabolic and respiratory 
Cellular destruction - Burns, traumatic injury 
Hypoaldosteronism/ hemolysis 
Intake - Excessive 
Nephrons, renal failure 
Excretion - Impaired

HYPOCALCEMIA 
CATS:
Convulsions 
Arrhythmias 
Tetany 
Spasms and stridor

BLEEDING - Signs and Symptoms 
BEEP:
Bleeding gums 
Ecchymoses (bruises) 
Epistaxis (nosebleed) 
Petechiae (tiny purplish spots)

RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION - inducing drugs
STOP breathing:
Sedatives and hypnotics 
Trimethoprim 
Opiates 
Polymyxins

PNEUMOTHORAX - Signs and Symptoms 
P-THORAX:
Pleuretic pain 
Trachea deviation 
Hyperresonance 
Onset sudden 
Reduced breath sounds (& dypsnea) 
Absent fremitus 
X-ray shows collapse

PNEUMONIA -  risk factors 
INSPIRATION: 
Immunosuppression 
Neoplasia 
Secretion retention 
Pulmonary oedema 
Impaired alveolar macrophages 
RTI (prior) 
Antibiotics & cytotoxics 
Tracheal instrumentation 
IV dug abuse 
Other (general debility, immobility) 
Neurologic impairment of cough reflex, (eg NMJ disorders)

CROUP - Signs and Symptoms 
SSS:
Stridor 
Subglottic swelling 
Seal-bark cough

SHORTNESS OF BREATH - Causes
AAAA PPPP: 
 Airway obstruction 
Angina 
Anxiety 
Asthma 
Pneumonia 
Pneumothorax 
Pulmonary Edema 
Pulmonary Embolus


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