31 January 2009


Cervical Injury:
  • C2 to C3 injury usually fatal
  • C4 is the major innervation to the diaphragm by th phrenic nerve
  • Involvement above th C4 causes respiratory difficulty and paralysis of all the four extremities
  • C5 or below client may have movement in the shoulder

Thoracic Level Injury:
  • loss of movement of the chest, trunk, bowel, bladder, and legs, depending on the level of injury
  • Leg paralysis (paraplegia)
  • Autonomic dysreflexia with lesions above T6 and in cervical lesions
  • Visceral distention from a distended bladder or impacted rectum may cause reactions such as sweating, bradycardia, hypertension, nasal stuffiness, and gooseflesh
Lumbar and Sacral Level Injuries:
  • loss of movement and sensation of the lower extremities.
  • S2 and S3 center on micturation; therefore below this level, the bladder will contract but not empty (neurogenic bladder)
  • Injury above S2 in males allows them to have an erection, but they are unable to ejaculate because of sympathetic nerve damage.
  • Injury between S2 and S4 damages the sympathetic and parasympathetic response, preventing erection and ejaculation.

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