Musculoskeletal system

CFCF / CC BY-SA


Working together to provide support and produce movement, the structures of the musculoskeletal system include:
• muscles
• bones
• cartilage
• joints, bursae, tendons, and ligaments.

Muscles
There are three major muscle types:
• skeletal muscles (voluntary, striated muscles)
• smooth (involuntary muscles)
• cardiac (involuntary, striated muscles).

Bones• 206 in the human body
• Classified by shape and location
• Perform mechanical and physiologic functions
• Begin as cartilage
• Formed by process called endochondral ossification
• Continuously torn down and rebuilt by osteoclasts and osteoblasts

Cartilage
• Dense connective tissue consisting of fibers embedded in a strong, gel-like substance
• Avascular and not innervated
• Supports, cushions, and shapes body structures
• May be fibrous, hyaline, or elastic

Joints
• The union of two or more bones
• Classified by how much movement they allow; synarthrosis, no movement; amphiarthrosis, slight movement; diarthrosis, free movement
• Supporting the joints are the:
–bursae — cushions located at friction points around joints and between tendons, ligaments, and bones
–tendons — bands of fibrous connective tissue that attach muscle to bone to stabilize joints
–ligaments — bands of fibrous connective tissue that tie bones to other bones to stabilize joints.

How musculoskeletal disorders develop
Carpal tunnel syndrome — caused by inflammation or fibrosis of tendon sheath that results in median nerve compressed by edema.
Gout — caused by decreased uric acid excretion by the kidneys resulting in painful swelling and tenderness caused by rising urate levels.
Osteoarthritis — caused by deterioration of joint cartilage that results in reactive new bone forming in the joints.
Osteoporosis — caused by reduction in bone matrix and bone remineralization that results in bones becoming soft and easily fractured.

1 comment:

  1. Thank you very much for this information. This will be very helpful for us nurses. Especially me, im about to take the NCLEX next month. thank you very much. continue your hard work. peace out!

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